کاهش و افزایش در ترجمه¬های منظوم، منثور، و مشروح قرآن کریم- قسمت ۱۳

وَ جاءَ مِنْ أَقْصَا الْمَدِینَهِ رَجُلٌ یَسْعى‏ قالَ یا قَوْمِ اتَّبِعُوا الْمُرْسَلِین (۳۶:۲۰)

 

 

Then from the fringes of the town,
Came a man in haste to plead:
“O You my people, do obey
These messengers indeed!

 

 

Meaning

 

 

As shown in the above example the Qur’anic word قالَ is translated by the English word plead, this is while the Qur’anic word simply means to say. The reason why the translator has chosen plead for قالَ is that it goes quite well with the word indeed at the end of English rendering, thus creating musicality. This attention to the form and the attempt to create a sound feature has culminated in the change of the original word and the distortion of meaning. It is also clear from the above table that the translator has been successful in keeping the original word order. The word order here is semantically-motivated, as discussed by Tabataba’i. As he (1961/1340:110) points out the reason why the fringes or outskirts of the town is foregrounded in وَ جاءَ مِنْ أَقْصَا الْمَدِینَهِ رَجُلٌ and the word رَجُلٌ comes after the place might be to show that there has been no collusion between the Messengers and the man and further to show the strong belief of the man in Messengers and the Truth which had made him to come such a long way to them.
Table 4.4 Example of Loss in Form/Meaning in Formal Correspondence (Poetic) Translation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source Text Element Formal Correspondence (poetic) Translation Loss in From/Meaning
وَ اضْرِبْ لَهُمْ مَثَلًا أَصْحابَ الْقَرْیَهِ إِذْ جاءَهَا الْمُرْسَلُون (۳۶:۱۳) And cite to them a parable:
There was a town unto whose people,
Were sent apostles:
Form/Meaning

 

In the above example, as the table depicts, both form and meaning are distorted. In the English version there are two colons and a comma, while there is no such thing in the original. The presence of the comma takes away the sense of continuation which the Ayah has and creates a sort of pause in reading. The Qur’anic expression إِذْ جاءَهَا الْمُرْسَلُون is an active structure, but the same is rendered by a passive one, thus changing the form of the original. As far as meaning is concerned, the Qur’anic word جاءَ means came, but the English version uses sent as an equivalent which violates the original meaning. Also the Qur’anic Ayah does not seem to be necessitating the use of there was in the English.
Chart 4.1 Frequency of Loss in Form/Meaning in Formal Correspondence Translation of the Qur’an (Poetic)
As shown in Chart 4.1, 26 cases of loss in form/meaning were found in this Formal Correspondence translation of the Holy Qur’an. This method of translation was adopted by Fazllolah Nikayin (2006) in a poetic translation of the Qur’an. From the total of 26 cases of loss 15 cases, i.e. 58 percent, were of those in the meaning and 11 cases, i.e. 42 percent, in the form.
۴٫۲٫۲ Formal Correspondence (Prose Translation)
The second translation which adopts Formal Correspondence as its method of translation in translating the Sublime Qur’an is the prose translation of Arthur J. Arberry (2007). The prose translation of Arberry in using the Formal Correspondence keeps close to the form of the original, and thus is a source-oriented translation. It tries to render the word order without alteration and at the same time, to capture the sense of the original and preserve the compactness, it uses words which are concise. However, such a method of translation cannot normally escape limitations of its own. Thus, it is quite normal that the adherence to the form can well result in a loss of meaning. To have a clearer picture of this, examples and relevant explanations are brought here. From among 35 cases of loss in total, 9 cases were found in the prose translation. Further, from the total of 9 cases of loss in prose translation 2 cases were of those in form and 7 cases were of the meaning. Examples of losses in prose translation will now be presented and delineating explanations will follow them.
Table 4.5 Example of Loss in Form/Meaning in Formal Correspondence (Prose) Translation (by Arberry)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source Text Element Formal Correspondence (poetic) Translation Loss in From/Meaning
إِذْ أَرْسَلْنا إِلَیْهِمُ اثْنَیْنِ فَکَذَّبُوهُما فَعَزَّزْنا بِثالِثٍ فَقالُوا إِنَّا إِلَیْکُمْ مُرْسَلُون (۳۶:۱۴) When We sent unto them two
men, but they cried them lies, so
We sent a third as reinforcement
– They said, We are assuredly
Envoys unto you
Form/Meaning

 

The original word اثْنَیْنِ refers to two messengers because the Surah in this part talks about two Messengers who were sent to the people of that city, this is while the English TT uses two men which violates the meaning.
The Arabic word فَعَزَّزْنا is a verb but the TT uses a noun reinforcement, thus violating he form of the original.
Table 4.6 Example of Loss in Form/Meaning in Formal Correspondence (Prose) Translation (by Arberry)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source Text Element Formal Correspondence (poetic) Translation Loss in From/Meaning
سَلامٌ قَوْلًا مِنْ رَبٍّ رَحِیم (۳۶:۵۸) Peace! – such is the greeting, 

 

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